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    organismos que se encargan de descomponer los organismos muertos para reintegrar la materia al ambiente

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    Organismos Descomponedores

    Organismos Descomponedores ✓ Te explicamos qué son los organismos descomponedores y los tipos que existen. Además, su importancia ecológica y ejemplos.

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    Organismos descomponedores

    Te explicamos qué son los organismos descomponedores y los tipos que existen. Además, su importancia ecológica y algunos ejemplos.

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    Los descomponedores ocupan el peldaño inferior de la cadena trófica.

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    ¿Qué son los organismos descomponedores?

    Se denomina organismos descomponedores a todos aquellos seres vivos heterótrofos, cuya principal fuente de sustento es la materia orgánica en estado de descomposición, que ayudan a reducir a sus mínimos componentes aprovechables (descomposición). Los descomponedores ocupan el peldaño inferior de la cadena trófica, porque garantizan nutrientes y fertilizantes a los productores primarios.

    La descomposición es un proceso habitual e importante en el ciclo de la vida, y es lo que sigue a la muerte, ya sea total (un individuo completo) o parcial (partes, restos o miembros de un individuo). Este proceso es llevado a cabo por una diversa comunidad de microorganismos descomponedores, compuesta por numerosas especies de hongos y bacterias.

    Algunos consumidores, denominados consumidores de detritos o detritívoros, suelen ser considerados como descomponedores. Se alimentan de detritos, que es materia orgánica muerta que incluye cadáveres, hojarasca y heces. Los consumidores de detritos y los descomponedores microbianos destruyen organismos muertos y productos de desecho.

    Ver además: Factores bióticos

    Tipos de organismos descomponedores

    Los detritívoros se alimentan de restos corporales de otros organismos.

    Dependiendo del tipo de materia orgánica en descomposición de la que se alimenten, podemos hablar de tres tipos fundamentales de organismos descomponedores:

    Detritívoros o detritófagos. Son los organismos consumidores que se alimentan de detritus, o sea, de restos corporales de otros organismos, como residuos vegetales (hojas secas, frutos en descomposición, flores marchitas, etc.). Todo este material orgánico cae al suelo de los diferentes ecosistemas y genera, al descomponerse, una capa de materia orgánica en descomposición llamada “humus”.Coprófagos. Son los organismos consumidores que se alimentan de las heces de otros organismos más complejos, es decir, de sus excrementos. Allí encuentran materia orgánica aprovechable que los otros animales no pueden digerir total o parcialmente, sacando provecho a lo que ya ha sido aprovechado en primera instancia.Necrófagos. Son los consumidores que se alimentan de cadáveres, o sea, del cuerpo de los organismos muertos. Una vez que la vida ha cesado, diferentes microorganismos comienzan una digestión de la materia orgánica, ayudados antes por insectos, animales carroñeros y otros organismos que devoran el cuerpo o que acaban con los restos de la cacería de otros animales más grandes.Saprótrofos. Son los descomponedores propiamente dichos. Son heterótrofos microbianos que se abastecen de energía al descomponer las moléculas orgánicas en los restos (cadáveres y desechos corporales) de todos los miembros de la cadena alimentaria. Liberan moléculas orgánicas simples, como dióxido de carbono y sales minerales, que pueden ser reutilizadas por los productores. La mayoría de las bacterias y hongos son descomponedores importantes.

    Importancia ecológica de los organismos descomponedores

    Los descomponedores son organismos vitales para el circuito de la transmisión de la energía y de la materia en todos los ecosistemas. Son los garantes del total aprovechamiento de los recursos biológicos: descomponen la materia orgánica en sustancias más básicas y elementales, cada vez más próximas a las necesarias para el florecimiento de los organismos productores o primarios (como las plantas).

    Sin ellos, la descomposición de la materia sería un proceso mucho más prolongado y trabajoso, especialmente en el caso de aquellos depredadores finales que no suelen ser presa de nadie.

    Ejemplos de organismos descomponedores

    Las bacterias son el primer frente activado de descomposición de la materia.

    Algunos ejemplos de organismos descomponedores son:

    Las bacterias. Una verdadera fauna de microorganismos heterótrofos hace vida en el intestino de los animales y libremente en la naturaleza. Cuando la vida ha cesado, son el primer frente activado de descomposición de la materia, ya que fermentan, oxidan y consumen los tejidos.La mayoría de los hongos. Los hongos de vida saprófita (no parasitaria) suelen nacer en lugares ricos en humedad y materia orgánica en descomposición, como puede ser el suelo de un bosque caducifolio o la pintura de un baño con mala ventilación. Allí descomponen químicamente la materia para obtener energía y nutrientes con los que crecer y reproducirse.Las lombrices de tierra. Las diversas especies de lombrices de tierra llevan una existencia ciega bajo tierra, abriendo túneles a medida que avanzan, alimentándose de la materia orgánica en sus últimos estados de descomposición.

    fuente : concepto.de

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    Consumidores y Descomponedores

    12.17

    Consumidores y Descomponedores

    Last Modified: May 24, 2021

    ¿Qué esta descomponiendo a esta hoja?

    Notas como esta hoja se esta descomponiendo lentamente. Este proceso puede ser realizad por hongos o bacterias del suelo. Descomponer hojas viejas es un proceso importante porqué libera los nutrientes de las hojas viejas al suelo para que las plantas vivas los usen.

    Consumidores y Descomponedores

    Recuerda que los productores crean su propio alimento mediante la fotosíntesis. Pero muchos organismos no son productores y no pueden crear su propio alimento. Así que, ¿cómo obtienen energía estos organismos? Ellos deben obtener su energía de otros organismos. Ya sea comiéndolos o de alguna otra forma. Los organismos que obtienen su energía de otros organismos son llamados consumidores . Todos los animales son consumidores y comen otros organismos. Los hongos, las bacterias y muchos organismos protistas también son consumidores. Sin embargo, a diferencia de los animales que comen otros organismos, los hongos, las bacterias y los protistas "consumen" organismos mediante métodos diferentes.

    Los consumidores pueden ser agrupados en diferentes grupos, según su alimentación.

    Los herbívoros son animales que comen productores para obtener energía. Por ejemplo, los conejos y los ciervos son herbívoros que comen plantas. La oruga de la imagen de abajo (véase Figura siguiente ) es un herbívoro. Los animales que comen fitoplancton en los medio ambientes acuáticos también son herbívoros.

    Los carnívoros se alimentan de animales, ya sean herbívoros u otros carnívoros. Las serpientes que comen ratones son carnívoras. Los halcones que comen serpientes también son carnívoros (véase Figura siguiente ).

    Los omnívoros comen tanto productores como consumidores. La mayoría de las personas son omnívoras, ya que se alimentan de frutas, vegetales, cereales, carnes y lácteos. Los perros, osos y mapaches también son omnívoros.

    Figura 13.28

    Ejemplos de consumidores son las orugas (herbívoros) y los halcones (carnívoros).

    Descomponedores y Estabilidad

    Los descomponedores (véase Figura siguiente ) obtienen nutrientes y energía al descomponer organismos muertos y desechos animales. Mediante este proceso, los descomponedores liberan nutrientes, como el carbono y el nitrógeno, de vuelta al entorno. Estos nutrientes son reciclados de vuelta al ecosistema para que los productores puedan usarlos. Luego son pasados a otros organismos cuando son comidos o consumidos. Muchos de estos nutrientes son reciclados de vuelta al suelo, así pueden ser absorbidos por las raíces de las plantas.

    La estabilidad de un ecosistema depende de las acciones de los descomponedores. Ejemplos de descomponedores incluyen a los hongos en un tronco en descomposición. Las bacterias en el suelo también son descomponedores. Imagina que pasaría si no existieran los descomponedores. Los desechos y restos de organismos muertos se amontonarían y los nutrientes en los desechos y organismos muertos no serían liberados de vuelta al ecosistema. Los productores no tendrían los nutrientes suficientes. El carbono y el nitrógeno necesarios para construir compuestos orgánicos, y luego células, que permiten que un organismo crezca serían insuficientes. Otros nutrientes necesarios para el funcionamiento correcto de un organismo tampoco serían suficientes. Esencialmente, muchos organismos no podrían existir.

    Figura 13.29

    Ejemplos de descomponedores son (a) las bacterias y (b) los hongos.

    Resumen

    Los consumidores deben obtener sus nutrientes y energía comiendo otros organismos.

    Los descomponedores desintegran restos y desechos animales para obtener energía.

    Los descomponedores son esenciales para la estabilidad y supervivencia de un ecosistema.

    Investiga Más

    Usa la siguiente referencia para responder las preguntas.

    Descomponedores en http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6V0a_7N1Mw (3:19)(Solo en inglés)

    Haz clic en la imagen de arriba para ver más contenido.

    ¿Cuál es la función de los descomponedores en un ecosistema? ¿Cuál es la fuente de la materia que se descompone?

    ¿De qué manera las acciones de las lombrices mejoran la calidad del suelo? ¿De qué manera afecta esto a la cantidad de biomasa que un ecosistema puede sostener?

    ¿Cómo pueden los gasterópodos actuar como descomponedores?

    Repaso

    ¿Qué es un consumidor?

    ¿Cuál es el término dado a un consumidor que come tanto hojas como peces?

    ¿Cuáles son los diferentes tipos de consumidores?

    ¿Por qué son importantes los descomponedores en el ecosistema?

    fuente : flexbooks.ck12.org

    ¿Quieres ver la respuesta o más?
    Santiago 26 day ago
    4

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

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