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    fueron las civilizaciones más antiguas surgieron en mesopotamia y tenían miles de habitantes

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    obtenga fueron las civilizaciones más antiguas surgieron en mesopotamia y tenían miles de habitantes de este sitio.

    Historia de Mesopotamia

    Historia de Mesopotamia

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    La historia de Mesopotamia hace referencia a la primera civilización que ocupó el territorio de Mesopotamia, que abarca la cuenca fluvial de los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, desde la prehistoria hasta la caída del último imperio mesopotámico —el Imperio caldeo o neobabilónico—. Durante esta etapa, la región mantuvo ciertos caracteres comunes que permiten definirla como una unidad histórica.1​

    Mesopotamia no está delimitada por fronteras naturales definidas, extendiéndose al este hacia Irán, al norte hacia Anatolia y al oeste hacia Siria. La historia de Mesopotamia corresponde también a un período histórico de la antigüedad oriental que se inicia con los primeros poblamientos de Mesopotamia en lugares como Tell Hassuna, Samarra y Tell Halaf. La relación de Mesopotamia con el Antiguo Testamento hizo ese campo de estudio particularmente atractivo para los occidentales a partir del siglo xviii. La asiriología, disciplina que se encarga de la Historia Antigua de Mesopotamia, fue instituida en el siglo xix; su desarrollo fue influenciado por un fenómeno que los críticos postmodernos, como Edward Said, llamaron orientalismo, definido como la representación de Oriente en la academia, en la literatura y en el arte occidental por medio de estereotipos determinados por una postura neocolonialista, etnocéntrica y racista.

    Índice

    1 Orígenes (10 000-5500 a. C.)

    2 Período de El Obeid (5500-4000 a. C.)

    2.1 Eridu

    3 Período de Uruk (4000-2900 a. C.)

    3.1 Templo Blanco

    3.2 Invención de la escritura (3500-1500 a. C.)

    3.3 Sumerios y Semitas

    3.4 Urbanización

    3.4.1 Consideraciones acerca de la urbanización

    4 Período Dinástico Arcaico (2900-2350 a. C.)

    4.1 Política

    4.2 La Lista Real Sumeria

    4.3 Supremacía de Kish

    4.4 Supremacía de Uruk

    4.5 Supremacía de Ur

    4.6 Supremacía de Lagash

    4.7 Supremacía de Umma (2360-2350 a. C.)

    4.8 Cultura en el Periodo Dinástico Antiguo

    4.8.1 El desvelamiento del cuneiforme

    4.8.2 Religión

    4.8.2.1 Boda sagrada y prostitución sagrada

    4.8.2.2 Controversia en torno a la prostitución

    4.9 El Templo, los zigurats

    4.10 Las excavaciones en la ciudad de Ur

    4.10.1 Cementerio de Ur

    4.10.1.1 El enigma del Cementerio de Ur

    4.11 Literatura 4.11.1 El diluvio

    4.11.1.1 El orientalismo y el diluvio

    4.11.2 Epopeya de Gilgamesh

    4.12 El mundo de los Muertos

    4.13 Metalurgia 4.14 Edubba

    4.15 Matemáticas y calendario

    4.16 La Rueda

    5 Imperio Acadio (2350-2160 a. C.)

    5.1 Sargón, el Grande

    5.2 Naram-Sin

    6 Período de los gutis (2150-2100 a. C.)

    6.1 Gudea de Lagash

    7 III Dinastía de Ur (2110-2000 a. C.)

    7.1 Ur-Nammu

    7.1.1 Código de Ur-Nammu

    8 La caída de Ur (2000-1800 a. C.)

    9 Imperio Paleobabilónico (1800-1590 a. C.)

    9.1 Hammurabi (1792-1750 a. C.)

    9.1.1 El código de Hammurabi

    9.2 División de la sociedad

    9.3 Religión Amorita

    9.3.1 El Enuma Elish

    9.3.1.1 El Enuma Elish y su significado político

    9.3.1.2 El Enuma Elish y su significado religioso

    9.3.1.3 El Enuma Elish y el Génesis

    9.3.1.4 El Enuma Elish y la ciudad de Babilonia

    10 Período de segregación (1590-1000 a. C.)

    10.1 Babilonia casita (1590-1160 a. C.)

    10.2 Migración de los indoeuropeos (2000 a. C.)

    10.2.1 Hititas (2000-1180 a. C.)

    10.2.2 Reinos Hurritas (1550-1350 a. C.)

    10.2.3 Ugarit (1450-1200 a. C.)

    10.2.4 Filisteos (1190-700 a. C.)

    10.3 Período Antiguo de Asiria (2300-2000 a. C.)

    10.4 Surgimiento de Asiria (2000-1000 a. C.)

    11 Imperio Neoasirio (1000-605 a. C.)

    11.1 Salmanaser III (858-824 a. C.)

    11.2 Tiglatpileser III (745-727 a. C.)

    11.3 Salmanaser V (726-722 a. C.) y Sargón II (721-705 a. C.)

    11.4 Senaquerib (704-681 a. C.)

    11.4.1 Guerra con Judá

    11.5 Asaradón (680-669 a. C.), Asurbanipal (668-627 a. C.) y decadencia asiria (627-605 a. C.)

    12 Cultura y sociedad en el período neoasirio

    12.1 Monarquía 12.2 Religión

    12.2.1 Akitu, Zagmuk

    12.3 Biblioteca de Assurbanipal

    13 Imperio Neobabilónico (612-539 a. C.)

    13.1 Nabopolassar (626-605 a. C.)

    13.2 Nabucodonosor II (605-562 a. C.)

    13.3 Nabonido (556-539 a. C.)

    13.3.1 Calendario babilónico

    13.3.2 Arquitectura caldea

    13.3.3 Arameos 13.3.4 Religión 14 Los persas

    15 La asiriología y la biblia hebrea

    16 Hipótesis de origen extraterrestre de las culturas de Mesopotamia

    17 Véase también 18 Referencias 19 Enlaces externos

    Orígenes (10 000-5500 a. C.)[editar]

    Cerámica mesopotámica antigua.

    Artículo principal:

    Los antecedentes del Neolítico se situaron en el área de la cordillera del Tauro y la costa mediterránea cananea, mediante la transformación de los cazadores-recolectores en agricultores y ganaderos, entre los milenios 12 y 10.2​ Este cambio se fue haciendo más evidente en el natufiense (10 000-8300 a. C.) en las áreas de Siria y Canaán principalmente. Entre 9300 y 4400 las formas protoneolíticas ya predominaban en estas áreas, además de empezar a notarse en Anatolia y los montes Zagros, regiones todas periféricas al área de Mesopotamia.2​

    fuente : es.wikipedia.org

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    Podemos decir que Ur y Sippar fueron dos de las civilizaciones antiguas que surgieron en Mesopotamia y tenían miles de habitantes.Se puede decir que Mesopotamia…

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    ¿En qué civilizaciones antiguas nacieron las ciudades?

    Los seres humanos empezaron a establecerse en grandes asentamientos hace unos 7000 años: Mesopotamia, Egipto, el Valle del Indo o China.

    Civilizaciones antiguas en las que nacieron las ciudades

    ACNUR Comité Español

    Descubre la historia

    abril 2018

    Tiempo estimado de lectura: 4 minutos.

    El 54% de la población mundial vive actualmente en ciudades, según datos de las Naciones Unidas, y las proyecciones indican que está cifra no hará más que crecer en el futuro a medio plazo. Sin embargo, el asentamiento de la humanidad en núcleos urbanos es algo relativamente reciente si atendemos a las decenas de miles de años que llevamos caminando sobre el planeta con nuestro actual fenotipo de homo sapiens sapiens. Hasta entonces, los humanos vivíamos en pequeñas sociedades nómadas dedicadas a la caza y la recolección, sin un emplazamiento fijo.

    Las primeras ciudades dignas de tal nombre, es decir, espacios urbanos donde los habitantes trabajaban en actividades especializadas en su interior y donde existía un poder económico y político centralizado, empezaron a aparecer en distintos puntos del planeta hace unos 7.000 años. Antes de que este fenómeno fuera posible, el factor determinante que permitió a los seres humanos empezar a establecer asentamientos fijos fue la agricultura.

    El desarrollo de la artesanía, el comercio y el desarrollo de administraciones políticas más complejas produjo un crecimiento paulatino de algunos de estos asentamientos que acabaron por convertirse en el germen de las grandes civilizaciones antiguas. Estas fueron las primeras civilizaciones en las que se empezaron a formar ciudades:

    Mesopotamia

    Ubicada entre las fértiles cuencas de los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, en los actuales Irak y Siria, el desarrollo de la agricultura permitió que esta región alojara una amplia y pujante población. Aquí se desarrollaron los primeros alfabetos conocidos, las primeras técnicas de regadío y fabricación cerámica y se levantaron los primeros templos. También es el origen de las primeras representaciones conocidas del uso de la rueda.

    Buqras, Umm Dabaghiyah y Yarim fueron probablemente las primeras ciudades que se formaron en la región y que inauguraron la etapa del Neolítico en Mesopotamia. Posteriormente, florecientes civilizaciones como Sumeria, Babilonia o Asiria se desarrollarían entre el Tigris y el Éufrates a partir de ciudades como Ur, Babilonia o Nínive. La invasión persa en el 539 a.C. reduciría la centralidad de las ciudades mesopotámicas en los nuevos imperios que pasaron a controlar la región. Pero seguiría siendo un centro cultural, económico y político de primer orden durante siglos.

    Egipto

    Si los ríos Tigris y Éufrates crearon un entorno fértil, idóneo para el desarrollo de la agricultura, lo mismo se puede decir del valle y el delta del inmenso río Nilo en los actuales Egipto y Sudán. Aunque la agricultura se expandió en torno al 8000 a.C. por el valle del Nilo, las primeras ciudades no surgieron hasta el 3.100 a.C. Fueron el germen una civilización que se unificaría bajo el gobierno de los faraones y se expandiría a lo largo del Nilo.

    En el antiguo Egipto se desarrollaron ciudades como Tebas, Guiza o Heliópolis, donde se levantaron impresionantes monumentos que han llegado hasta nuestros días. Al igual que en Mesopotamia, la invasión persa puso fin a la época dorada de esta civilización, donde siguieron desarrollándose ciudades como Alejandría o El Cairo en los siglos posteriores.

    Valle del Indo

    Al igual que el Tigris y el Éufrates en Mesopotamia y el Nilo en Egipto, el río Indo, con sus desbordamientos que convirtieron su valle en un terreno extremadamente fértil, fue lo que permitió el florecimiento de una gran civilización antigua. En las orillas del Indo, en lo que hoy es Pakistán, Afganistán y el noreste de India se desarrolló una de las primeras culturas urbanas de la historia, con Harappa y Mohenjo-Daro como sus dos mejores exponentes. Vivió su periodo de esplendor entre los años 2600 y el 1900 a.C.

    Al contrario que las culturas desarrolladas en Mespotamía y el Nilo, la cultura del Valle del Indo fue prehistórica, es decir, no dejó vestigios que permitan suponer la existencia de la escritura. A pesar de ello, en el Indo se ha localizado la más antigua elaboración textil con algodón y sus habitantes destacaron por su dominio de la orfebrería y su desarrollado comercio que se extendió hasta la Península Arábiga, Mesopotamia y Egipto. Una gran sequía, el declive del comercio o la inmigración de otros pueblos han sido consideradas como las causas más probables del derrumbe de esta civilización en torno al 1500 a.C.

    China

    El río Amarillo, que atraviesa todo el centro de la actual República Popular China, alojó a la última de las primeras grandes civilizaciones urbanas de la humanidad, la cultura Erligang. Bajo el reinado de la dinastía Shang, la primera documentada de la historia de China, se desarrolló una civilización que construyó ciudades como Chang’an o Yin durante el segundo milenio a.C.

    De este periodo datan los restos arqueológicos más antiguos de formas de escritura en china y los miembros de esta cultura también destacaron por su dominio del bronce y el jade. Aunque la dinastía Shang cayó en el 1122 a.C. la región continuó siendo una de las zonas centrales en el desarrollo de la cultura china y sus ciudades continuaron albergando a miles de personas durante siglos.

    fuente : eacnur.org

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