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    en el experimento de la clase de física, se pone a calentar agua durante 3 minutos y se registra la temperatura. posteriormente, aumenta la masa del agua, se pone a calentar durante 3 minutos en las mismas condiciones, se observa que la temperatura disminuye. ¿qué relación existe entre la masa de agua y la temperatura?

    Santiago

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

    obtenga en el experimento de la clase de física, se pone a calentar agua durante 3 minutos y se registra la temperatura. posteriormente, aumenta la masa del agua, se pone a calentar durante 3 minutos en las mismas condiciones, se observa que la temperatura disminuye. ¿qué relación existe entre la masa de agua y la temperatura? de este sitio.

    Calentamiento y cambio de estado del agua

    CALENTAMIENTO Y CAMBIO DE ESTADO DE UNA MASA DE AGUA

    Experimento realizados por alumnos de 3º ESO en el IES "Leonardo da Vinci" de Alicante.

    PLANTEAMIENTO, HIPÓTESIS Y DISEÑO EXPERIMENTAL DESARROLLO DEL EXPERIMENTO. EVAPORACIÓN Y EBULLICIÓNGRÁFICA DE LA TEMPERATURA FRENTE AL TIEMPO TEMPERATURA DE EBULLICIÓN ARCHIVOS CON LOS ANÁLISIS

    PLANTEAMIENTO, HIPÓTESIS Y DISEÑO EXPERIMENTAL

    Se desea estudiar la evolución de la temperatura de una masa de agua a lo largo de un proceso de calentamiento. A modo de hipótesis, los estudiantes esperan que, si se aporta al agua un flujo de calor uniforme, la temperatura aumentará a un ritmo también uniforme, de modo que la relación entre la temperatura que va adquiriendo el agua y el tiempo transcurrido sea lineal. Si los alumnos han estudiado antes en  clase  los cambios de estado, también prevén que la temperatura del agua se estabilice al alcanzar . Al alcanzarse dicha temperatura debería empezar la ebullición del agua, durante la cual la energía aportada se emplea completamente en producir el cambio de estado, sin aumento de temperatura.

    Un diseño experimental sencillo puede utilizar un vaso de precipitado conteniendo el agua a calentar y una resistencia sumergible que aportará la energía. Para realizar las mediciones los estudiantes pueden sumergir en el agua un sensor de temperatura o, alternativamente,  pueden sumergir un termómetro tradicional y usar un cronómetro para medir el tiempo.

    DESARROLLO DEL EXPERIMENTO. EVAPORACIÓN Y EBULLICIÓN

    En el experimento que aquí se expone, realizado por estudiantes de 3º ESO, los alumnos se repartieron en equipos de 2-3 alumnos. Tomaron lecturas de la temperatura cada minuto cuando usaron un termómetro de mercurio para medir la temperatura. Cuando usaron el sensor de temperatura, lo configuraron con una velocidad de muestreo de 5s.

    Además de construir la gráfica de la evolución de la temperatura los estudiantes debían describir fenómenos que se pueden observar en la masa de agua durante el proceso (como ascensos de burbujas de aire, corrientes de convección, evaporación del agua y la misma ebullición)

    Nos detenemos a comentar brevemente los procesos de evaporación y de ebullición.

    La evaporación es un proceso paulatino que se produce durante todo el experimento y va adquiriendo mayor intensidad a medida que aumenta la temperatura del agua. Técnicamente consiste en un paso gradual del estado líquido hacia el estado gaseoso, por parte de una parte de las moléculas del agua, que tienen energía suficiente para vencer la tensión superficial o, dicho de otro modo, para romper los enlaces intermoleculares.

    La ebullición, en cambio, sólo se produce cuando la temperatura de la totalidad del líquido alcanza un valor determinado o punto de ebullición del líquido a esa presión. Formalmente se define como la temperatura a la cual la presión de vapor del líquido iguala a la presión de vapor del medio en el que se encuentra. A partir de que dicha temperatura se alcanza, la energía que aporta al líquido la resistencia se invierte totalmente en producir el cambio de estado, sin que vuelva a aumentar la temperatura hasta que toda la masa del agua haya pasado al estado gaseoso. Cuando se está produciendo la ebullición, todo el líquido se agita, observándose en él abundantes "borbotones".

    Evaporación (video a la izquierda) y ebullición (video a la derecha)GRÁFICA DE LA TEMPERATURA FRENTE AL TIEMPO

    Las gráficas adjuntas recogen resultados de la evolución de la temperatura con el tiempo obtenidos por dos equipos de alumnos. Uno de dichos equipos utilizó un termómetro de mercurio y un cronómetro, e hizo lecturas de la temperatura a intervalos de un minuto (gráfica de la izquierda). El otro equipo usó directamente en el experimento el sensor de temperatura (gráfica de la derecha). Ambos utilizaron el programa DataStudio para representar y analizar la gráfica.

    Como se ve, ambas gráficas coinciden bastante bien con las hipótesis, mostrando que en el proceso de calentamiento la temperatura aumenta progresivamente y la relación entre temperatura y tiempo no se aleja mucho de una relación lineal, hasta que, al alcanzar un valor próximo a 100ºC, comienza la ebullición (desde entonces, la temperatura se mantiene constante).

    TEMPERATURA DE EBULLICIÓN

    fuente : rsefalicante.umh.es

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    Experimento: densidad del agua fría y caliente

    Te proponemos un experimento con agua fría y caliente para conocer su diferente densidad. ¿Por qué el agua caliente tiende a subir?

    Ciencia | Experimentos

    Aquae

    Experimenta la densidad del agua fría y caliente

    Compartir: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp Email

    ¿Quieres probar las propiedades del agua, usando solo dos vasos y un poco de agua caliente y fría? Para ello, te proponemos un sencillo experimento en el que descubrirás como el agua de un vaso puede «volar». Para este experimento tan solo necesitas un poco de agua fría y caliente, un poco de colorante y un trozo de plástico. ¡Empezamos!

    Realizar este experimento para observar cómo se comporta la densidad del agua caliente y fría es muy sencillo. Además, en cuestión de unos minutos, te llevarás una sorpresa gracias a las propiedades del agua fría y caliente.

    ¿Cómo realizar el experimento con agua fría y caliente?

    Primero llena dos vasos que tengan la misma forma y tamaño con la misma cantidad de agua. En ambos caso, el líquido tiene que llegar al límite. En uno echarás agua caliente y en el otro la fría. Procura utilizar agua muy fría. Para asegurarte de que el experimento funciona, échale unos cuantos cubitos de agua al vaso. Mientras esperas a que se enfríe, calienta donde prefieras (olla, microondas, tetera…) el agua que echarás en el vaso caliente. Una vez el agua esté preparada para el experimento, echa un par de gotas de colorante en uno de los vasos (también puedes ponerlo en los dos) para poder diferenciarlos.

    Cuando lo tengas listo, estarás preparado para el experimento de agua caliente y fría. Coge el plástico y colócalo encima del vaso de agua fría. Acto seguido, haciendo vacío, dale la vuelta y ponlo encima del de agua caliente. Con sumo cuidado, retira el plástico para que ambas aguas queden unidas.

    Cuando vayas retirando el plástico verás que ambos líquidos se irán uniendo. Lo que sucede es que el agua caliente es menos densa que el agua fría. Por eso, esta primera tiende a subir y el agua fría termina quedando por debajo.

    Este fenómeno se produce, fundamentalmente por la actividad de las moléculas. Cuando el agua está caliente, las moléculas están en continuo movimiento y se chocan constantemente. En otras palabras, el agua caliente tiene una densidad muy baja. Ocurre lo contrario cuando el agua está fría. El movimiento es casi como de pequeños empujones, con lo cual están muy concentradas lo que aumenta su densidad.

    ¿Por qué el agua tiene densidades diferentes?

    Todos los elementos del planeta –tanto naturales como generados por el hombre– tienen una densidad diferente. No obstante, la temperatura de un objeto o de un elemento químico, como en este caso, puede modificar la densidad del mismo. Así, el agua fría y caliente están compuestas por la misma molécula (H2O) pero tienen diferentes densidades. A pesar de que la diferencia de densidad no es muy grande, es suficiente para que el agua caliente se sitúe sobre el agua fría. Es lo que hemos visto en este experimento. Como veremos más adelante, esto ocurre también en la naturaleza de forma natural.

    Un fenómeno propio de las corrientes marinas

    La acción del calor provoca la diferencia de densidad entre el agua caliente y el agua fría. Cuando se calienta el agua –en la naturaleza, es el Sol el agente que provoca este cambio– las moléculas que la componen se empiezan a agitar con mayor excitación. Al moverse más rápido, las moléculas del agua caliente chocan entre sí con más fuerza. También el rebote es mucho mayor. Esto hace que la misma cantidad de agua ocupe más espacio cuando está caliente, lo cual hace que la densidad sea menor.

    Por el contrario, las moléculas del agua fría están más juntas, lo cual genera un rebote entre las partículas menor. Al ocupar menos espacio que el agua caliente, existe una mayor concentración de partículas, lo cual explica por qué el agua fría tiene mayor densidad. Esto provoca que el agua caliente flote sobre la fría.

    El fenómeno que has visto en este experimento es algo que ocurre a diario en los océanos. Las masas de agua cálida se sitúan por encima del agua fría en los océanos del mundo. Por eso cuanto más profundo buceamos en el agua, más bajas son las temperaturas. A esta división de temperaturas se la conoce como termoclima. Se trata de una capa dentro de un cuerpo de agua o aire donde la temperatura cambia rápidamente con la profundidad o altura.

    NO TE PIERDAS MÁS CONTENIDOS COMO ESTOS

    ¡SUSCRÍBETE AHORA!

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    SUSCRÍBETE A NUESTRA NEWSLETTER

    fuente : www.fundacionaquae.org

    ¿Quieres ver la respuesta o más?
    Santiago 3 day ago
    4

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

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