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    durante la colonia los virreyes convirtieron el ejercicio de los puestos públicos en un negocio privado, hábito que a su vez habría persistido a través de los siglos y tiene cierta vigencia en la actualidad. ¿cuáles de las siguientes acciones ejemplifican esta problemática? 1. pedir dinero para evitar una multa. 2. dar un trato desigual a las mujeres. 3. ofrecer dinero para facilitar un trámite. 4. discriminar a personas de origen indígena.

    Santiago

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

    obtenga durante la colonia los virreyes convirtieron el ejercicio de los puestos públicos en un negocio privado, hábito que a su vez habría persistido a través de los siglos y tiene cierta vigencia en la actualidad. ¿cuáles de las siguientes acciones ejemplifican esta problemática? 1. pedir dinero para evitar una multa. 2. dar un trato desigual a las mujeres. 3. ofrecer dinero para facilitar un trámite. 4. discriminar a personas de origen indígena. de este sitio.

    El Ejército Virreinal

    El Ejército durante la Nueva España

    El Ejército Virreinal

    El Ejército Virreinal El Ejército durante la Nueva España

    Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional | 16 de julio de 2015

    El Ejército de la Colonia

    El Ejército en la Nueva España.

    Los primeros antecedentes de la llegada del ejército español al territorio americano fueron con las huestes de la conquista de los territorios de Ultramar. El 18 de noviembre de 1518, Hernán Cortés partió del Puerto de Santiago de Cuba, su armada estaba compuesta de 518 infantes, 16 jinetes, 13 arcabuceros, 32 ballesteros, 110 marineros. En el trascurso de su campaña, su efectivo se vio reducido considerablemente a causa de las imperiosas condiciones del viaje.

    El 27 de febrero de 1519, llegó la expedición de Cortes a Cozumel, durante los primeros meses avanzó hacia la región central. El 8 de noviembre de ese mismo año, inició la incursión a Tenochtitlán con 400 españoles, 15 caballos y 7 cañones. A partir de ese momento y durante todo el periodo Virreinal llegaron de forma constante cientos de hombres de armas, huestes expedicionarias y milicias de origen novohispano.

    El Gobierno Virreinal se fortaleció de manera paulatina, uno de los mecanismos para mantener el orden fue adoptar la estructura del sistema de administración de la Corona Española, para el efecto fue nombrado un Virrey como autoridad del Rey en Ultramar, durante el siglo XVI, recibió el cargo de Capitán General en el que le fue conferido el mando y la organización de las Fuerzas Armadas y de las Flotas Navales.

    Una de las funciones de las que estaba encargado el Virrey era de reclutar y avituallar a sus fuerzas, además de construir, conservar y sostener los presidios y fortalezas. Asimismo debía solucionar problemas relacionados con la justicia militar, cargo del que recibía apoyo del auditor de guerra quien también se desempeñaba como uno de los oidores de la Real Audiencia o era asesorado directamente con la junta de guerra.

    El Virrey podía delegar responsabilidades en los gobernadores al otorgarles la  distinción de Capitán General y a los Alcaldes Mayores norteños como Capitanes a Guerra para ejercer funciones de jefes militares en su respectiva jurisdicción, entre otros lugartenientes. En el norte, los misioneros también participaron en los trabajos de defensa de la zona, además de la presencia de especialistas militares que auxiliaban las labores de defensa y construcción, como lo fueron los Ingenieros Militares.

    A pesar de que la protección de las colonias en América siempre fue una prioridad, el ejército aún no estaba plenamente instituido en la Nueva España, quienes se encargaban de mantener la paz eran las organizaciones civiles y las milicias provinciales o urbanas que posteriormente fueron integradas a las compañías de presidio construcciones de vigilancia fronteriza en las que se establecían fortificaciones dotadas de tropas.

    Cabe mencionar que el servicio militar fue una obligación que existía en la península y pasó a la Nueva España, aunque excluyó en lo posible a los indígenas para evitar que fueran capaces de rebelarse. Entre 1542 y 1552 la Corona confirmó la obligación militar de encomenderos. Sin embargo; a finales del siglo XVII, esa responsabilidad se redujo al abono de gastos para la defensa con los que abastecían a las tropas.

    En 1762, ante la intervención de los ingleses en la Toma de la Habana, surgió la necesidad de establecer un ejército permanente en la Nueva España, la Monarquía española le ordenó a Francisco de Villalba y Ángulo la creación de un ejército capaz de rechazar cualquier agresión. Villalba arribó a Veracruz en 1764, marcando con esto el inicio de la organización del ejército regular.

    Pero la organización y administración de la defensa durante el Virreinato, encarnó una serie de problemas desde su creación debido a que las actividades del ejército; intensificaron las diferencias sociales e incentivaron la desconfianza de los soldados peninsulares hacia los novohispanos. Otro elemento que logró influir en el establecimiento del Ejército Virreinal fue la presión que constantemente ejercieron las autoridades locales como ayuntamientos, grupos mineros, autoridades eclesiásticas y hacendados.

    A principios del siglo XVIII, las directrices de cambio fueron emanadas de las Reformas Borbónicas mismas que develaron la necesidad de reorganizar la defensa americana, lo que llevó a formar guarniciones, desplazando a las antiguas compañías de presidio por unidades regulares integradas por Compañías, Batallones y Regimientos dotados de Planas Mayores y Servicios de Guarnición. Además de que el reclutamiento y los ascensos fueron regulados. Por disposición de los Consejos Castellanos se implementaron academias de ingeniería y matemáticas para profesionalizar los Servicios de Guarnición

    La organización del Ejército Virreinal se integró por las siguientes unidades y milicias auxiliares:

    Unidades fijas en las principales ciudades americanas que adquirieron idéntica estructura a las unidades peninsulares.Ejército de refuerzo o también llamado ejército de operaciones en indias, compuesto por unidades peninsulares enviadas temporalmente al otro lado del mar como refuerzo de algunas plazas con amenazas de invasión.

    fuente : www.gob.mx

    Durante la colonia los virreyes convirtieron el ejercicio de los puestos públicos en un negocio

    Respuesta:1 y 3 pedir dinero para evitar una multa ofrecer dinero para facilitar un trámite

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    Durante la colonia los virreyes convirtieron el ejercicio de los puestos públicos en un negocio - Brainly.lat

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    “Hegemonía, Historia y religiosidad popular en Guatemala: el diálogo de los pueblos mayas con la cultura occidental a través de la política, el mestizaje cultural y el imaginario”

    En este trabajo se explica la forma en que los pueblos mayas han establecido un diálogo particular con la cultura occidental en Guatemala. La Historia y la religiosidad popular son espacios en que el contacto e interrelación entre las tradiciones culturales autóctonas y las occidentales han generado lógicas discursivas, prácticas culturales y subjetividades. Estos elementos han contribuido a la construcción identitaria de los grupos étnicos que constituyen la Nación, efectuando como elemento modulador de este movimiento la hegemonía ladina instalada con el triunfo de los liberales en 1871.

    Sommaire Document précédent 12 | 2018

    Idiosyncrasie de l’indigénisme en Amérique latine. Pluralité des sources et des appropriations extra-latino-américaines

    Varia

    “Hegemonía, Historia y religiosidad popular en Guatemala: el diálogo de los pueblos mayas con la cultura occidental a través de la política, el mestizaje cultural y el imaginario”

    Néstor Felícito Véliz Catalán

    https://doi.org/10.4000/artelogie.2372

    Résumé | Index | Plan | Texte | Bibliographie | Note de fin | Illustrations | Citation | Auteur

    RÉSUMÉS ESPAÑOL FRANÇAIS

    Cet article explique la manière dont les peuples mayas ont établi un dialogue particulier avec la culture occidentale au Guatemala. L'histoire et la religiosité populaire sont des espaces dans lesquels le contact et l'interrelation entre traditions culturelles autochtones et occidentales ont généré des logiques discursives, des pratiques culturelles et des subjectivités. Ces éléments ont contribué à la construction identitaire des groupes ethniques qui constituent la Nation, en agissant comme élément modulateur de ce mouvement l'hégémonie ladino installée avec le triomphe des libéraux en 1871.

    Haut de page ENTRÉES D’INDEX

    Mots-clés :

    Guatemala, hégémonie, Histoire, indigène, Ladino, religiosité populaire, subalternité

    Palabras claves:

    Guatemala, ladino, indígena, hegemonía, Historia, religiosidad popular, subalternidad

    Haut de page PLAN Introducción

    2. Precedentes históricos de la hegemonía política ladina

    3. Reforma Liberal y el advenimiento de nuevas condiciones para el encuentro del legado maya en la “cultura nacional”

    3.1 Hegemonía, cultura y sociedad en la Reforma Liberal

    3.2 La integración del indígena al Estado ladino por los liberales, asimilación e imposición de la versión guatemalteca de la cultura occidental a los pueblos mayas

    3.3 El abordaje de la cultura de los pueblos mayas en el liberalismo

    3.4 Hibridación racial y mestizaje cultural: la penetración de lo ladino por lo indígena

    3.5 El diálogo, una dimensión de la interacción cultural a través del tiempo y en el presente

    4. La religiosidad, espacio de pervivencia de las costumbres y tradiciones indígenas después de la Reforma Liberal y espacio de expresión para las “voces ancestrales”

    5. La religiosidad popular, espacio de “encuentro” entre los mundos simbólicos católico occidental y maya

    5.1 Diálogo entre las tradiciones religiosas mayas y la cristiandad occidental en Maximón, un “santo mestizo”

    5.2 Los barriletes de Sumpango y Santiago Sacatepéquez el día de Todos los Santos: diálogo simbólico a través del arte y la religiosidad

    5.3 El Cristo Negro de Esquipulas, un “culto nuevo” con reminiscencias ancestrales

    6. Conclusiones: Haut de page TEXTE INTÉGRAL PDF

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    Introducción

    1

    Los actuales pueblos originarios que subsisten en el territorio de la República de Guatemala fueron impactados, hace casi cinco siglos, por un fuerte golpe y quiebre a la continuidad de sus formas culturales debido a la invasión española. Esto condicionó la imposición de una nueva hegemonía política e ideológica, por medio de la cual los indígenas fueron asimilados al sistema colonial por medio de la conversión religiosa, el trabajo forzado que beneficiaba a los terratenientes criollos y la tributación a la Iglesia y la Corona.

    2

    Lo anterior trajo consigo un conjunto de mutaciones en las prácticas religiosas y expresiones estéticas, las cuales fueron objeto de sanciones al existir, en las autoridades civiles y clericales. Las mismas sostuvieron un afán de homogenización ideológica que les llevó a estigmatizar, sancionar y perseguir a quienes practicaran alguna forma precedente de creencia religiosa, la que frecuentemente fue interpretada como reminiscencia de un pasado caracterizado por la idolatría y la superstición características de la barbarie precristiana.

    3

    Durante casi tres siglos, los indígenas fueron tutelados por la Iglesia, la cual, por medio de distintas órdenes religiosas marcó una presencia sensible y apreciable en las nuevas unidades político-geográficas en que se concentró a los nativos después de 1540, cuando la Corona española modificó el significado y práctica de la Encomienda por los beneficiarios de concesiones que premiaban la participación en la guerra contra los indios. La vigencia de esta institución provocó graves abusos que produjeron el aniquilamiento y extinción de algunos núcleos debido a la virtual esclavización practicada sobre los nativos, entregados inicialmente a la tutela y vigilancia

    1 El celo misional y decidida orientación hacia la extinción de las prácticas judaicas e islámicas qu (...)

    4

    El contacto de los indígenas con los frailes franciscanos, dominicos, mercedarios, entre otros, contribuyó a introyectar en los nuevos súbditos un imaginario que replicaba las pautas del catolicismo ibérico de los siglos XV y XVI. Este tuvo una proyección al exterior a través de una práctica de exclusión y discriminación hacia los no cristianos, así como el sostenimiento de una vocación proselitista y homogenizadora en lo cultural que le llevó a acometer contra los judíos y los descendientes de árabes y berberiscos que habitaron la península hasta que su resistencia provocó la expulsión definitiva, tras resultar infructuosos los intentos de conversión a la fe católica.1

    fuente : journals.openedition.org

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