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    cuáles consideras que son las causas que permiten la formación de una civilización

    Santiago

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

    obtenga cuáles consideras que son las causas que permiten la formación de una civilización de este sitio.

    1. LAS PRIMERAS CIVILIZACIONES: DEFINICION, CAUSAS, Y CARACTERISTICAS.

    1. LAS PRIMERAS CIVILIZACIONES: DEFINICION, CAUSAS, Y CARACTERISTICAS.

    Las civilizaciones urbanas están definidas por las ciudades, y surgieron junto a los ríos cuando las aldeas crecieron y se convirtieron en ciudades debido a 2 causas:

    1.La mejora de la agricultura provocó un aumento de la cosecha lo que permitió crear un excedente que se vendía o se almacenaba.

    2.La existencia de más alimentos provocó el incremento de población y que la aldea creciera hasta convertirse en una ciudad.

    Características de las civilizaciones urbanas:

    1.El crecimiento económico debido al perfeccionamiento de la agricultura y el desarrollo del comercio.

    2. La aparición de sistemas numéricos y métodos de escritura que permitían conservar datos.

    3. Creación de religiones más complejas dirigidas por sacerdotes y basadas en distintos dioses (Politeísmo).

    4. La organización política se basaba en la existencia de un rey o jefe que dirigía la ciudad y el ejército, y que utilizaba la guerra como medio para conseguir lo que no posee la ciudad.

    5. La existencia de una sociedad desigual y jerarquizada formada por dos grupos:

    ●Minoría rica privilegiada: rey, nobleza o aristocracia, sacerdotes.

    ●Mayoría pobre sin privilegios: campesinos, artesanos, esclavos.

    LAS PRINCIPALES CIVILIZACIONES URBANAS:●MESOPOTÁMICA (ENTRE LOS RÍOS TIGRIS Y EUFRATES)●EGIPCIA (RIO NILO)●CHINA (ENTRE LOS RÍOS AMARILLO Y AZUL)●INDIA (RIO INDO)

    Mesopotamia by Antonio Gonzalez Noberto is licensed under a Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional License.

    fuente : agrega.educacion.es

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    Civilización

    Civilización

    Ir a la navegación Ir a la búsqueda

    Para otros usos de este término, véase Civilización (desambiguación).

    Vista sobre la origen del concepto de ciudadano y con él el de civilización.

    Una civilización es una sociedad compleja,1​2​ y por tanto sus rasgos definitorios son su forma de organización, sus instituciones y su estructura social, así como su tecnología disponible y la forma de explotación de los recursos disponibles.3​4​5​6​7​8​9​10​11​

    Las civilizaciones se diferencian de las sociedades tribales basadas en el parentesco12​ por el predominio del modo de vida urbano (la ciudad, que impone relaciones sociales más abiertas) y el sedentarismo (que implica el desarrollo de la agricultura y a partir de ella todo tipo de desarrollos tecnológicos y económicos con la división del trabajo, la comercialización de excedentes13​ y, más tarde, la industrialización y la terciarización).14​ Con pocas excepciones, las civilizaciones son históricas, es decir, utilizan la escritura para el registro de su legislación y su religión (aparecidas con el poder político -reyes, estados- y religioso -templos, clero-) y para la perpetuación de la memoria de su pasado (incluyendo la aparición de los conceptos de tiempo histórico y calendario).

    Si se utiliza en un sentido amplio, civilización pasa a ser sinónimo de cultura (englobando las visiones del mundo o ideologías, las creencias, los valores, las costumbres, las leyes e instituciones), que se suele aplicar con carácter más general.

    Recientemente, surge un nuevo concepto de civilización: «la civilización empieza a aparecer cuando se establece un sistema de vida factible; es decir, una relación apropiada entre el hombre y la naturaleza, de acuerdo con las características de una región determinada».15​ De acuerdo a este nuevo enfoque, el desarrollo industrial solo desarrolla a una civilización si éste contribuye al bienestar de la sociedad y del medio ambiente. A partir de esta definición, vemos una profunda relación entre civilización y sustentabilidad. Yendo más lejos, se puede decir que el progreso no siempre es acumulativo, sino que es no lineal; el paso del tiempo en una sociedad puede afectar tanto al bienestar de sus miembros como al bienestar de la naturaleza.

    Etimológicamente, la palabra «civilización» deriva indirectamente del latín (ciudad) que entronca con civitio o sentimiento comunitario16​ y de (ciudadano) a través de civil y civilizar.

    Índice

    1 Historia del concepto

    2 Civilización en singular o civilizaciones en plural

    2.1 Civilización como estado de la evolución cultural

    2.2 Relativismo cultural

    2.3 Civilizaciones en perspectiva histórica

    3 Véase también 4 Referencias 5 Bibliografía 6 Enlaces externos

    Historia del concepto[editar]

    La palabra inglesa procede del francés de principios de la Edad Moderna (siglo XVI) ("civilizado"), del latín ("civil"), relacionado con ("ciudadano") y ("ciudad").17​ El tratado fundamental es de Norbert Elias (1939), que traza las costumbres sociales desde la medieval hasta el 'período moderno temprano'.18​ En (1923), Albert Schweitzer esboza dos opiniones: una puramente materialista y otra materialista y ética. Dice que la crisis mundial proviene de la pérdida por parte de la humanidad de la idea ética de civilización, "la suma total de todos los progresos realizados por el hombre en todas las esferas de acción y desde todos los puntos de vista, en la medida en que los progresos contribuyen al perfeccionamiento espiritual de los individuos como el progreso de todos los progresos".19​

    Palabras relacionadas como "civismo" se desarrollaron a mediados del siglo XVI. El sustantivo abstracto "civilización", que significa "condición civilizada", surgió en la década de 1760, también del francés. El primer uso conocido en francés es en 1757, por Victor de Riqueti, marqués de Mirabeau, y el primer uso en inglés se atribuye a Adam Ferguson, quien en su de 1767 escribió, "No sólo el individuo avanza de la infancia a la virilidad, sino la propia especie de la rudeza a la civilización".20​ La palabra se oponía, pues, a la barbarie o a la grosería, en la búsqueda activa del progreso característico del Siglo de las Luces.

    A finales de 1700 y principios de 1800, durante la Revolución Francesa, "civilización" se utilizaba en el singular, nunca en plural, y significaba el progreso de la humanidad en su conjunto. Éste sigue siendo el caso en francés. El uso de "civilizaciones" como un sustantivo contable fue de uso ocasional en el siglo XIX,21​ pero se ha hecho mucho más común a finales del siglo XX, a veces sólo con el significado de cultura (a su vez, en origen, un sustantivo incontable, convertido en contable en el contexto de la etnografía).22​ Sólo en este sentido generalizado se puede hablar de una "civilización medieval", que en el sentido de Elías habría sido un oxímoron.

    Civilización en singular o civilizaciones en plural[editar]

    , un concepto fundacional de las ciencias sociales, tiene un uso conceptualmente distinto, incluso opuesto,23​ cuando se emplea intencionalmente en singular, refiriéndose al grado superior de desarrollo de la sociedad humana, con lo que se indica que existe una única civilización; o cuando se hace en plural, para indicar la pluralidad de las a través del tiempo, el espacio geográfico y los distintos rasgos culturales (lenguas, religiones, e incluso los polémicos conceptos de etnias o razas humanas), con lo que se indica que han existido y existen muchas: civilización micénica, civilización andina, civilización grecorromana -o civilización griega y civilización romana-, civilización china, civilización islámica, civilización cristiana, civilización occidental, etc., incluso las identificadas con las naciones europeas que han tenido un mayor peso en la formación histórica de imperios o han ido extendiendo su lengua o su cultura (civilización portuguesa, civilización española, civilización francesa, civilización británica, civilización rusa, civilización alemana, civilización italiana).

    fuente : es.wikipedia.org

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