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    cuál fue la aportación más importante en la numeración de los mayas que les permitió hacer cálculos de todo tipo

    Santiago

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

    obtenga cuál fue la aportación más importante en la numeración de los mayas que les permitió hacer cálculos de todo tipo de este sitio.

    Matemáticas, astronomía y calendarios II – Aprende en Casa

    Matemáticas, astronomía y calendarios II

    noviembre 29, 2022

    Historia, Primaria, Primaria 4to

    Matemáticas, astronomía y calendarios II

    Aprendizaje esperado: distingue las características y reconoce los aportes de las culturas mesoamericanas y su relación con la naturaleza.Énfasis: conoce y valora las principales manifestaciones culturales de las sociedades mesoamericanas, tales como sus conocimientos matemáticos y astronómicos, el calendario, la escritura, las prácticas agrícolas, la herbolaria, las festividades, el arte y los mitos de creación.¿Qué vamos a aprender?

    En la sesión anterior aprendiste un poco de los sistemas numéricos mesoamericanos y cómo eran usados para diversas funciones, dos de los más complejos fueron la astronomía y los calendarios.

    Hoy vas a aprender un poco más sobre los calendarios: Las diferentes formas como se contabilizaban los días, los años, y la razón de esto.

    Para empezar, repasa lo que viste en la clase anterior:

    El sistema numérico vigesimal que los mayas tenían y sus símbolos eran: cero, 1 y 5; caracol, punto y línea.

    El tipo de representaciones numéricas que tenían los mesoamericanos se pueden observar en varios restos arqueológicos.

    El uso que le daban a las matemáticas los pueblos mesoamericanos: medir el tiempo, elaborar calendarios y la observación de los cuerpos celestes les permitió hacer mediciones que coinciden con los hallazgos, o conclusiones, de la investigación científica hoy en día.

    Recuerda que aprendiste que con la observación astronómica fue posible establecer el paso de las estaciones del año, así como las fechas en que era bueno sembrar o cosechar, esto, junto con lo que has visto en clases pasadas como la agricultura, la herbolaria, la escritura y el arte, que vienen del pasado de los pueblos mesoamericanos, te van proporcionando más conocimiento sobre estas culturas.

    En tu libro de Historia podrás estudiar el tema de la página 60 a la 62.

    https://libros.conaliteg.gob.mx/20/P4HIA.htm#page/60

    Si no lo tienes a la mano no te preocupes, puedes investigar en otros libros que tengas en casa o en Internet, para saber más.

    ¿Qué hacemos?

    Realiza las siguientes actividades.

    Observa el siguiente video que muestra la relación de las pirámides mesoamericanas con los calendarios.Las grandes pirámides de Mesoamérica están orientadas según el calendario-UNAM Global.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzS69vPu0ww

    Como viste, hasta las construcciones monumentales estaban orientadas según el calendario, muchas de esas construcciones servían como observatorios, los cuales permitían que pudieran observar los astros celestes y hacer cálculos matemáticos diversos, que les serían útiles para armar los diversos calendarios que tenían.

    En este video has podido observar cómo todos los aspectos que has visto en clases anteriores se van relacionando.

    Observa el siguiente video que te va a permitir conocer el origen de los calendarios mesoamericanos.Antropológicas: El origen de los calendarios prehispánicos.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NjreuYUwi4

    Cómo pudiste ver, los pueblos mesoamericanos eran apasionados del tiempo.

    Los que más se interesaron por la medición del tiempo fueron los mayas, tanto así que querían calcular cuál era la mejor temporada para realizar cualquier actividad.

    Eran muy escrupulosos en sus cálculos, y lo tenían muy en mente, ya que cualquier fallo en sus cálculos podía hacer que no fuera tan productiva una cosecha, por ejemplo, pensaban que cualquier acción hecha en el tiempo incorrecto podría tener repercusiones, incluso no sólo en un futuro inmediato, es decir, de un día para otro, sino que podía tener repercusión dentro de miles de años, además que tenían ideas muy peculiares sobre el tiempo y con base a ellas fueron ideando sus calendarios.

    Si observas la línea del tiempo de la página 40 de tu libro de texto, encontrarás que todas ellas están, como dice su nombre, en forma de línea. Se lee de izquierda a derecha: Los hechos y sucesos más antiguos son los que están más a la izquierda y los más recientes son los que van apareciendo hacia la derecha.

    Este tipo de representaciones del tiempo se basan en la consideración de que el tiempo es lineal, esto quiere decir, que algo que ya sucedió no vuelve a repetirse jamás. Puede que un acto del pasado sea similar a uno del presente, es decir, uno que se está viviendo, pero eso no quiere decir que se repitió, que sea igual.

    Pero en el caso de los pueblos mesoamericanos, era distinto, ellos pensaban que el tiempo era cíclico, esto quiere decir que las cosas tienen un inicio, desarrollo y fin, pero que vuelve a iniciar, a desarrollarse y repetirse, y este ciclo se volvía a dar una y otra vez por toda la eternidad.

    fuente : aprendeencasa.sep.gob.mx

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    3 aportaciones matemáticas de los mayas explicadas fácilmente

    Quizá su necesidad de precisión para medir el tiempo y entender el cielo fue el motor de la maestría de los mayas por las matemáticas.

    Categorías PASADO

    3 aportaciones matemáticas de los mayas explicadas fácilmente

    Quizá su necesidad de precisión para medir el tiempo y entender el cielo fue el motor de la maestría de los mayas por las matemáticas.

    Por: Redacción 17 enero, 2017

    El cielo, y el tiempo, fueron conjuntamente temas fundamentales que fascinaron a los mayas. Para el estudio de ambos, fue necesario contar con herramientas de conteo muy precisas, y quizá por ello los mayas desarrollaron su estudio de las matemáticas quizá como ninguna otra civilización en el mundo.

    En su cosmovisión todo lo existente estaba conformado por ciclos, y ello estaban influido enteramente por los astros. Por ello estos últimos guardaban un lugar tan importante en su manera de entender el mundo: y no es para más, la vida en la Tierra está conectada absolutamente al comportamiento de los astros. Quizá creyeron que observándolos podrían entender, incluso, el universo de lo humano internamente.

    Sobre su desarrollo matemático, los mayas llamaron la atención del mundo, entre otras por las siguientes notables características:

    Crearon el cero

    Pareciera algo obvio, el uso del cero. Aunque lo curioso es que la abstracción que representa el cero en realidad parte de un gran entendimiento, tanto para la representación de números complejos, como en la comprensión que representa que también puedan haber números negativos. Esto que pareciera una obviedad, en realidad se trata de una herramienta básica que facilita enormemente la comprensión del universo de los números. Al parecer solo dos culturas consiguieron desarrollar la abstracción del cero: la maya y la hindú, aunque los mayas se adelantaron unos 600 años.

      Desarrollaron símbolos de conteo simplificados

    La manera en que los mayas consiguieron representar la infinidad de números con solo tres signos es impresionante, y muy astuta. Los únicos signos son: un punto, una barra y un símbolo para el cero.  A su sistema se le conoce como vigesimal, es decir, hacían agrupaciones de 20 en 20 y este número podía potenciarse para leer una cifra más grande. Muy parecido a la manera en que nosotros indicamos un número a la potencia como  al cuadrado o al cubo (aunque solo a partir de 3 símbolos).

      Crearon el ábaco Maya

    La sencillez de sus signos para hacer cuentas hizo posible que estos fueran fácilmente representados, y el lienzo puede ser casi cualquier cosa, desde la tierra a una piedra plana; los símbolos, además, pueden encontrarse fácilmente en la naturaleza, baste encontrar palos y materiales con forma de circunferencia.

    También se les atribuye a los mayas la creación del Nepohualtzintzin (este es su nombre en náhuatl), ábaco conformado por una cuadrícula hecha con varillas y semillas que representaban los números. Cada parte superior de la varilla tiene 3 cuentas (cada una con un valor de cinco unidades) y 4 cuentas en la parte inferior (cada una valía 1 unidad). Esta creación maya fue también empleada por los mexicas (por ello su nombre está en náhuatl); también se han encontrado vestigios muy similares atribuidos a los olmecas, quienes quizá heredaron solo las bases de este tipo de herramienta a los mayas.

    *Imágenes: 2 )aprendematematicas.org; 3) didacticadelasmatesi.blogspot.mx

    *Fuentes:

    Magaña, Luis Fernando.Las Matemáticas y los Mayas. Revista Ciencias UNAM

    Smith, James. Cómo Efectuar Cálculos con Números Mayas. aprendematematicas.org

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