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    aspectos que cambiaron después de la independencia a lo largo del siglo xix sociedad

    Santiago

    Chicos, ¿alguien sabe la respuesta?

    obtenga aspectos que cambiaron después de la independencia a lo largo del siglo xix sociedad de este sitio.

    Siglo XIX

    Siglo XIX

    Ir a la navegación Ir a la búsqueda Siglo xix

    Siglos Siglo xvii • Siglo xviii ← Siglo xix → Siglo xx • Siglo xxi

    Decenios 1800 • 1810 • 1820 • 1830 • 1840 • 1850 • 1860 • 1870 • 1880 • 1890

    Tabla anual del siglo xix

    La locomotora de vapor, uno de los inventos más representativos del siglo xix.

    El primer motor de gasolina, uno de los inventos de la Segunda Revolución Industrial.

    El siglo xix d. C. (siglo diecinueve después de Cristo) o siglo xix e. c. (siglo diecinueve de la era común) fue el noveno siglo del II milenio en el calendario gregoriano. Comenzó el 1 de enero de 1801 y terminó el 31 de diciembre de 1900. Es llamado el «siglo de la industrialización».1​

    La característica fundamental de este siglo es la de ser un periodo de grandes cambios. La ciencia y la economía se retroalimentarían, el término ‘científico’, acuñado en 1833 por William Whewell,2​3​ sería parte fundamental del lenguaje de la época; la economía sufriría dos fuertes revoluciones industriales, la primera acaecida entre 1750 y 1840, y la segunda entre 1880 y 1914.4​ En política, las nuevas ideas del anterior siglo sentarían las bases para las revoluciones burguesas, revoluciones que se explayarían por el mundo mediante el imperialismo y buscaría alianza con el movimiento obrero al que, le cederían el sufragio universal; en filosofía, surgirían los principios de la mayor parte de las corrientes de pensamiento contemporáneas, corrientes como el idealismo absoluto, el materialismo dialéctico, el nihilismo y el nacionalismo; el arte demoraría en iniciar el proceso de vanguardia pero quedaría cimentado en movimientos como el impresionismo. A finales de este siglo surgieron la cinematografía y la animación gracias a los grandes avances tecnológicos de la época.

    Índice

    1 Ciencia 1.1 Medicina 1.2 Historiografía 2 Política 2.1 Europa 2.2 América Latina 2.3 Imperialismo 3 Arte

    4 Avances y acontecimientos

    4.1 Ciencia y tecnología

    4.1.1 Avances en medicina

    4.1.2 Inventos 4.1.3 Teorías

    4.1.4 Descubrimientos

    4.2 Guerras y revoluciones

    4.3 Política 4.4 Desastres 4.5 Cultura

    5 Personas del siglo XIX

    6 Demografía y estadísticas[11]​

    7 Referencias 8 Bibliografía 9 Enlaces externos

    Ciencia[editar]

    Medicina[editar]

    Artículo principal:

    Industria química BASF en Ludwigshafen, Alemania, 1881. Las fábricas fueron una edificación fundamental para el desarrollo de la Revolución Industrial.

    El desarrollo de la medicina tiene relación directa con los fenómenos migratorios, los hacinamientos en las ciudades y las precarias condiciones de vida de la clase trabajadora desde la Revolución Industrial, enfermedades infecciosas (sífilis, tuberculosis) o relacionadas con la mala alimentación (pelagra, raquitismo, escorbuto). Dichas problemáticas son cruciales para entender el origen de la medicina social de Rudolf Virchow y el nacimiento del sistema de salud pública de Edwin Chadwick que darían lugar a la actual medicina preventiva. La misma Revolución Industrial, con el agregado de las numerosas guerras y revoluciones, generarían un desarrollo científico generalizado que contribuiría en la instauración de condiciones técnicas para el triunfo de la asepsia, de la anestesia y la cirugía.5​

    Las revoluciones burguesas, promotoras de ciudadanos librepensadores, construyen a una nueva medicina científica y empírica, desligada de lo místico y artesanal. Se culmina con la opresión de los viejos cánones éticos del absolutismo y el catolicismo instaurando nuevos cánones, nuevos calendarios. El siglo xix verá nacer la medicina experimental de Claude Bernard, la teoría de de Rudolf Virchow, la teoría microbiana de la enfermedad, la teoría de la evolución de las especies de Charles Darwin, y la genética de Gregor Mendel.

    Al identificarse a los microorganismos como causantes de numerosas enfermedades, la medicina avanzó enormemente, de una forma mucho más rápida que en cualquier otra época anterior de la historia. Al conocerse esto, empezaron a emplearse métodos como los antibióticos, la esterilización, además empezó a haber un aumento considerable de la higiene, siendo la promotora de esto la enfermera Florence Nightingale. Todos estos avances lograron que la esperanza de vida que era de tan solo 30-40 años a inicios del siglo xix aumentara a 50-60 años a inicios del siglo xx, siendo un avance tan rápido y eficaz nunca antes logrado en la historia de la medicina.

    Historiografía[editar]

    Artículo principal:

    El siglo xix se caracteriza por romper definitivamente con la fusión que la historia había tenido con la literatura. Leopold von Ranke se compromete con una historia crítica y escéptica. Se deja influir por las corrientes filosóficas predominantes del momento, tales como el liberalismo y el nacionalismo llegando a caer incluso en el etnocentrismo, racismo y particularmente en el eurocentrismo. Las reflexiones sobre la sociedad de Saint-Simon producen dos tendencias que modificarían las tendencias historiográficas: El positivismo y el materialismo histórico, también influido por la dialéctica hegeliana. Ambas entienden que el comportamiento de la historia se encuentra sometido a leyes. La primera concibe el desarrollo de la historia como procesos ordenados, la segunda lo concibe como resultado de los conflictos entre los estratos sociales.

    fuente : es.wikipedia.org

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    fuente : brainly.lat

    Así cambió la economía entre la época de la Colonia y la Independencia

    Beethoven Herrera Valencia, docente de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, hace un recuento de la estructura económica en el Bicentenario. | Economía | Portafolio.co

    Economía

    abril 26 de 2019 - 07:44 a. m.

    Así cambió la economía entre la época de la Colonia y la Independencia

    Beethoven Herrera Valencia hace un recuento de la estructura económica del país en esos años.

    Al lograrse la independencia las tres cuartas partes de la tierra de la Nueva Ganada eran propiedad de la iglesia heredadas de los latifundistas.

    ILUSTRACIÓN DEL LIBRO "AMÉRICA PINTORESCA"

    POR: Portafolio

    La profundidad del cambio político generado por la independencia respecto de España contrasta con la permanencia de todo el sistema económico colonial durante las tres décadas posteriores, hasta mitad del siglo XIX.

    En efecto la independencia permitió la adopción de una constitución política, sistema de partidos, elecciones, relevo en el poder político y adopción de códigos (muy influidos por las ideas de la ilustración francesa y el modelo napoleónico), y un sistema de justicia civil; y aunque las guerras civiles se repitieron a lo largo del siglo, se formó un estado republicano. Cuba se mantuvo ocupada por un régimen colonial español; y Brasil si bien se independizó de Portugal mantuvo la monarquía a lo largo del siglo XIX.

    Paradójicamente ese proceso de ruptura y cambio no ocurrió de similar manera, no con la prontitud ni con la profundidad en el ámbito económico, pues aunque la recaudación de los tributos se dirigió hacia las nuevas autoridades republicanas, las estructuras económicas de la colonia no se modificarán hasta las reformas liberales de mitad del siglo XIX impulsadas por los radicales.

    (Lea: Gasto en Fuerza Pública en los últimos 60 años)

    Un fenómeno notable es que Bolívar tuvo refugio del presidente Petion cuando se huyó derrotado de Venezuela y se asiló en Haití, donde recibió respaldo con armas, dinero y apoyo político con el claro compromiso de asegurar la liberación de los esclavos si lograba el triunfo en la independencia. Solo en 1821 se prohibió el comercio de esclavos y en 1851 se decreta la libertad de esclavo pagando el estado una indemnización a los propietarios de esos esclavos.

    Al lograrse la independencia, las tres cuartas partes de la tierra de la Nueva Ganada eran propiedad de la iglesia heredadas de los latifundistas, quienes al morir las confiaban a la iglesia. Por ese origen se llamaban ‘bienes de manos muertas’, adicionalmente porque no se podían comprar ni vender, y por ende no se destinaban a la producción. Es fácil comprender el obstáculo que esta situación representaba para la producción de alimentos y materias primas para la manufactura.

    La iglesia no solo conservaba el monopolio de la educación y la orientaba al estudio de filosofía, teología, latín y moral; y no de ciencia y técnicas; y era obligatorio entregar el 10% (diezmo) de los ingresos de las personas en beneficio del clero, reduciendo así el nivel de ganancias de las personas y su capacidad de consumo e inversión.Desde la Colonia existía el sistema de ‘estancos’ o monopolios estatales, sobre el aguardiente, las minas y el cultivo del tabaco; cuya siembra debería ser autorizada por las autoridades.Aunque el monopolio de la producción y comercialización de licores persiste hasta hoy, e incluso sobrevivió a los intentos de eliminación que se presentaron en la Asamblea Constituyente de 1991, el estanco del tabaco se eliminó en 1850 , y los debates que acompañaron esa decisión estaban marcados por el enfrentamiento entre quienes sostenían que la renuncia a ese ingreso podría agravar el déficit fiscal, y los impulsores de la reforma, quienes creían que la liberación de esas actividades aumentaría la producción y por ende la recaudación, como efectivamente ocurrió.

    Los resguardos indígenas habían sido reconocidos por las leyes de Indias como propiedad colectiva de tierra para las comunidades, no podían enajenarse y eran explotados colectivamente. Su estructura se mantuvo después de la independencia hasta mitad del siglo cuando se produjo su disolución de gran parte de los resguardos con el argumento de que la modalidad de propiedad en el capitalismo debe ser individual.

    Es fácil comprender que la permanencia de estructuras que mantenían sometida la fuerza de trabajo a la esclavitud, y la mayor parte de las tierras monopolizadas por la propiedad de la iglesia, entidad que las mantenía improductivas y por fuera del circuito del mercado; y la extracción de rentas a favor de la iglesia deprimía la acumulación de capital necesaria al desarrollo. Por supuesto que la eliminación de esos resguardos convirtió a millones de indígenas en asalariados y sus tierras se volvieron haciendas para producción de bienes exportables y de consumo.

    La independencia significó entonces una mutación cualitativa en lo político pero no se correspondió con un cambio de similar profundidad de las estructuras económicas coloniales.

    Beethoven Herrera Valencia

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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